Participatory Planning (O&OD)

Opportunities & Obstacles to Development (O&OD) is a participatory planning process and a binding element of official LGA budgeting. It aims at communities drawing up and implementing their own plans in a bottom-up instead of a topdown process. A set of manuals details how O&OD should be carried out in all LGAs in Tanzania. These manuals are excellent, but the process they describe is a comprehensive one that depends on resources that are typically not at hand in rural districts in Tanzania today. SULGO has supported Handeni district council over the past years in adopting a pragmatic approach to O&OD, and documented the practice in a booklet. This Booklet is not meant to replace the official manuals, but to show a pragmatic example of how people in Handeni are making O&OD work for themselves. For instance, there are now 112 detailed Village Development Plans, and locals are much more informed and proactive. The O&OD experiences from Handeni continue to be fed into national level reviews of the O&OD process.

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Public Expenditure Tracking System (PETS)

Public Expenditure Tracking Systems (PETS) aim for empowered local communities that follow up on public expenditure. Based on a rigorous analysis of past initiatives, SULGO developed and applied a new approach for monitoring the management of public resources in rural communities. The new PETS approach reinforces and complements existing governance structures and processes, e.g. Village Assembly Meetings and O&OD. It also proactively seeks the collaboration between authorities and communities by building mutual trust and respect, helping authorities to do a better job by providing them with information from the grassroots. A quick guide for Civil Society Organisations summarises important success factors, guiding them in their work with village communities.

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Village Buildings

SULGO developed a new Village Building model that serves as an office for Village Executive Officers (VEOs) and also caters to the needs of the whole community. Village Council Meetings and other gatherings take place in this facility. The Village Building can also be used as a storage facility for important documents such as birth registers, certificates of land ownership, maps marking the boundaries of village land, and a notice board. The villages of Kwaluwala and Magamba in Handeni District piloted the construction of the new Model Village Building. Lessons learnt from the processes related to the project are summarised in a handbook, which is supplemented by a construction manual providing detailed guidance on the technical aspects of the Village Building.

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VEO Reference Book

The VEO Reference Book is a training and reference document for Ward Executive Officers, Mtaa Executive Officers and Village Executive Officers (VEOs), consolidating existing materials on the execution of their respective responsibilities. To date, all Ward Executive Officers in the country and a large number of Village and Mtaa Executive Officers have been trained using modules from the Reference Book. The VEO Reference Book compiles information on how to observe the rule of law, implement participatory planning, manage finances, and report to responsible authorities.

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Village Bylaws Manual

The Village Bylaws Manual gives an account of the bylaw making procedure. It covers all important aspects to be taken into consideration, such as the clear formulation of bylaws or the relationship between bylaws, national laws, and other regulations. The Village Bylaws Manual also includes model bylaws and governmental guidelines on bylaw making. It is designed in accordance with the Tanzanian Local Government Legislation and the Government Policy of Decentralisation by Devolution. The Village Bylaws Manual is intended to support Village Council Members and VEOs in the bylaw enactmentprocess.

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Ward Tribunal Capacity Building

In order to establish a sustainable system of capacity building for Ward Tribunals, SULGO developed a series of training measures and a comprehensive instruction manual. This series provides general information on the Constitution, Human Rights Law, Criminal Law, Civil Law, and Land Law. It also includes procedural suggestions regarding trials and mediation proceedings, advice on how to handle difficult situations during a hearing, and advice on how to keep tribunal records.

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